aetiology: associated factors causing AF. Incidence of AF

aetiology: coexistence of clinical or subclinical cardiovascular disease, prevalence of AF


ageing, comorbidities and hypertension on the long term


amiodarone pharmacokinetics

amiodarone, flecainide

amiodarone, flecainide, verapamil

amiodarone, low dose

amiodarone, low dose maintenace

amiodarone, low dose, 100 to 200 mg/d

amiodarone, propafenone

amiodarone, sotalol

amiodarone, total doses > 3 grs, starting before or after surgery

amiodarone, very low dose, 100 mg/d

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (losartan), added to amiodarone

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, enalapril, added to amiodarone

angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), valsartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers (irbesartan), added to amiodarone

angiotensin II receptor blockers (losartan)

angiotensin II receptor blockers, irbesartan

angiotensing converting enzyme inhibitors, enalapril

antiarrhythmic drugs, classes IA, IC, III

antiarrhythmics, amiodarone

anticoagulants, direct thrombin inhibitors, ximelagatran

any AAR (also review other recommendations of therapy)

apixaban, oral factor Xa inhibitors

appropiate outcome measures: longer-term risks of stroke or death and patient quality of life


associated risks

associated risks, first atrial fibrillation as risk marker

atrial fibrillation, as contributing cause of hospitalization


azimilide, sotalol

being an embolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation


beta blockers, metoprolol

beta blockers, metoprolol, plus repeated cardioversion if needed

beta-blockers, bisoprolol

beta-blockers, but with frequent changes and combination needed


calcium-channel blockers verapamil or diltiazem, beta-blockers, digoxin

cardioversion alone followed by repeated cardioversion plus amiodarone therapy on relapse

cardioversion followed by the use of aspirin alone or with amiodarone

catheter ablation, radiofrequency

catheter ablation, radiofrequency AND and antiarrhythmic drugs (various)

catheter ablation, radiofrequency, circumferential pulmonary vein ablation

CHA(2)DS2-VASc score: heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes, previous stroke/TIA, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex female. 1 point each, except age>75 & previous stroke, 2 points

CHADS2 and CHA(2)DS2-VASc scores

CHADS2 score: 1 point each for heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, and diabetes mellitus and 2 points for history of stroke or TIA


class I agents, sotalol

clopidogrel (75 mg/day) plus aspirin

consensus guidelines

continuous amiodarone, after electrical cardioversion

costs attributable to treating atrial fibrillation

criteria to define proarrhythmia

different treatment with drugs

digitalis, digoxin

diltiazem, intravenous


diverse AAR

diverse AAR, diverse interventions for cardioversion, for rate control

diverse antiarrhythmic drugs

diverse antiarrhythmic drugs, grouped by classes


dofetilide, sotalol


elective electrical cardioversion

electrical cardioversion, not followed by antiarrhythmics


flecainide, or propafenone

flecainide, quinidine

flecainide, sotalol

general population prevalence and incidence


incidence and prevalence of this arrhythmia

incidence, aetiology, natural history: associated risk of death, stroke and heart failure

incidence, natural history

incidence, prevalence, patophysiology

IV procainamide, oral quinidine, oral flecainide, oral propafenone, IV or hight-dose oral amiodarone, IV ibutilide

knowing actual current AF management

lenient rate control (resting heart rate <110 beats/min)


mortality, AF as contributing cause of

mortality, risk excess associated to AF

most of antiarrhythmic drugs

natural history of AF by type and aetiology

natural history, mortality

new hypothesis on amiodarone pharmacokinetics

oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, 110 or 150 mg twice daily fixed dose

pill-in-the-pocket approach: self-administered oral loading of flecainide or propafenone


prevalence, in an study population of 1.89 million at the USA

procaine amide quinidine (?)


propafenone, sotalol

propafenone, sotalol if failure, sequentially

prophylaxis using antiarrhythmics, amiodarone, 600 mg oral single dose per day from Day-1 to Day7 plus IV perfusion during surgery


quinidine plus amiodarone

quinidine plus beta-blocker (practolol)

quinidine, diphenylhydantoin

quinidine, disopyramide

quinidine, sotalol

rate control strategy

rate control strategy (drugs and anticoagulation)

rate control strategy (pharmacologic or invasive rate-control and anticoagulation)

rate of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm

rhythm control strategy (amiodarone)

rhythm control strategy (various antiarrhythmics)

rhythm control using amiodarone

rhythm control: electrical cardioversion combined with antiarrhythmic drugs (amiodarone or other class III agents)

risk factors for recurrence and persistence, clinical and echocardiography data

risk factors for stroke: several clinical items: previous stroke or TIA, hypertension, symptomatic coronary artery disease, and diabetes

serial electrical cardioversion, not followed by antiarrhythmics

several antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, sotalol, beta-blockers) and pacing


standard dose and low dose vitamin K antagonists, warfarin, ximelagatran, antiplatelet drugs, aspirin

various AA

various AARs

various AARs, sequential antiarrhythmic therapy

various antiarrhythmics


vitamin K antagonists, warfarin


warfarin use, recovering and maintaining sinus rhythm (either reciving rate or rhythm control management)

warfarin, anticoagulants