advanced static support surfaces, alternating-air mattresses

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily)

insertable cardiac monitor (96% of patients kept it after 12 months)

(13)C-urea breath test

(moderately) intensive glucose control using insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, sulfonylurea, metformin

1) bedside inoculation of ascitic fluid into blood culture bottles and PMN count >250 cells/microL; 2) serum-ascites albumin gradient < 1.1 g/dL

16 and 64-slice coronary multidetector computed tomography

24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measure

3 acute clinical findings: facial paresis, arm drift, or abnormal speech

3 interventions: short message service, fixed-dose combination pill, community health worker intervention

4 ‘A’s Test (4AT): Alertness (0-2 points), Abbreviated mental test (age, date of brith, location, year), Attention (counting months of the year backwards) and Acute change

4 features: automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow, recommendations rather than just assessments, at the time and location of decision making, and computer based

4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation

5 main classes of blood pressure lowering drugs: thiazides, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers

5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)

6-mo course of alternating corticosteroids (prednisolone) and cyclophosphamide

6-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation

8 days of empirical antibiotic therapy

a 19-item surgical safety checklist

a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500 mg, naproxen 200 mg, and oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir

a combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine

a complex intervention combining professional education, informatics, and financial incentives to review patients and charts

a genetic polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (Arg/Arg homocygote at residue 16)

a more intensive blood-pressure control: target SBP < 135 mmHg

a more intensive blood-pressure control: target SBP < 140 mmHg

a negative D dimer

a new bleeding risk score : ABC-bleeding : age, previous bleeding, haemoglobin, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)

a new stroke risk score: ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) combining: age, NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity troponine, prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack

a nomogram including age, ethnicity, family history, urinary symptoms, prostatic specific antigen (PSA), free:total PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination

a number of clinical and biological predictors

a restrictive transfusion strategy

a restrictive transfusion strategy (transfuse if hemoglobin level was <7.5 g/dL)

a restrictive transfusion strategy in stable patients: 7 to 8 g/dL, 8 g/dL or symptoms when preexisting cardiovascular disease. No data for acute coronary syndrom

a restrictive transfusion strategy: when hemoglobin < 7 g/dL

a risk score calculated depending on the presence or absence of 11 factors (function, illnesses, behaviors, demographics)

a risk stratification schema (range 0 to 19) composed of age, anemia, renal failure, bad hearing, >1 fall last 6 months, needing help for taking medocs, reduced walking, decreased social life, polychemotherapy and using standard chemo dose

a score combining: number of drugs and a history of adverse drug reaction as the strongest predictors, followed by heart failure, liver disease, presence of 4 or more conditions, and renal failure

a set of 10 specific plasma phospholipids, reflecting cell membrane integrity

a syncope risk score: 1 point any of: age > 90, male sex, history of arrhythmia, triage systolic blood pressure > 160 mm Hg, abnormal ECG, and abnormal troponin I ; -1 point for near (incomplete) syncope

a telephone-based interactive voice-response system that collected daily information about symptoms and weight

ABCD and ABCD2 modified scores: age, hypertension, clinical deficit, duration of symptoms (and diabetes)

ABCD score: age, hypertension, clinical deficit and duration of symptoms

ABCD2 modified score (age, hypertension, clinical deficit, duration of symptoms and diabetes) or carotid stenosis

ABCD2 modified score, in patients undergoing systematicaly central nervous system and carotid artery imaging

ABCD2 modified score: age, hypertension, clinical deficit, duration of symptoms and diabetes

absence of immunologic response (increase of CD4+ count) after 6 months of HAART

abstracts of medical publisehd articles

accurate knowledge of the early risk of stroke

acetazolamida, dexametasona


acetylcysteine 1200 mg, orally twice daily for 2 doses before and 2 doses after the procedure


aciclovir / corticosteroids

active compression stockings

active compression-decompression

active learning techniques: group problem-solving, worksheets or tutorials completed during class, use of personal response systems with or without peer instruction, and studio or workshop course designs

active monitoring

active monitoring only

actividad intelectual recreativa

actual rate of use of electronic health records

adding oral hypoglycemic agents, metformin, to insulin combination

addition of biphasic or prandial rapid (aspart) insulin to oral agents

addition of: microalbuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2)

additional exercise therapy delivered by the patients' family, lower limbs exercise, added to routine physiotherapy


adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel, added to aspirin, combined anti-platelet therapy

adequate display and interpretation of survival plots, Kaplan-Meier

adjunctive loperamide plus antibiotics

adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection with oxiplatin added to fluorouracil plus leucovorin alone

adjuvant use of corticosteroids, added to surgery

adrenalina altas dosis


age > 75 years

age over 60 years, previous medical illness, shock on admission, large ulcer size, and endoscopic stigmata of hemorrhage

age, female, history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation

aggressive targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) < 70 mg/dL and systolic blood pressure < 115 mmHg

air pollution: fine particulate matter (particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and ozone

alarm features such as dysphagia, weight loss, or anemia

aldosterone blockers, eplerone, 25 mg/day initiated 3 to 14 days after AMI

aldosterone blockers, spironolactone

aldosterone blockers, spironolactone, added to loop diuretics and ACEI

alkylator-free doublet lenalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone

alpha1-adrenergic receptor blockers, alfuzosin, terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin

alpha-blockers, calcium-channel blockers

alpha-blockers, doxazosin

alpha-lipoic acid (ALA)

alta prevalencia subclínico

ambulatory ECG monitoring with a 30-day event-triggered recorder (attached to a dry-electrode (nonadhesive) belt worn around the chest)


amiodarone, total doses > 3 grs, starting before or after surgery

an organized system (MORE) of second order of clinical peer review for journal articles

an scale (SORT) to grade strength of recommendations, as based in available evidence

an structured and systematic approach: review corrent medication use, match drugs to patients conditions and goals, asses drugs to be discontinued, asses potentially beneficial drugs to be introduced, reduce pill and doses burden

andexanet alfa, a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein, IV bolus and subsequent 2-hour infusion

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors during pregnancy, first trimester

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, perindopril 8 mg/d, added to standard treatment

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, trandolapril (4 mg/d), added to standard treatment

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril (20 mg/d)

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), perindopril

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), ramipril

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (perindopril, 4 mg/d), plus discretional indapamide

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers

angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), valsartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

angiotensin II receptor blockers (candesartan)

angiotensin II receptor blockers (candesartan), added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

angiotensin II receptor blockers (candesartan), as sustitute of non tolered angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

angiotensin II receptor blockers, added to or replacing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

angiotensin II receptor blockers, eprosartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers, irbesartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers, losartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers, telmisartan

angiotensin II receptor blockers, valsartan, alone or combined with ACE inhibitors

angiotensin II-receptor blocker, olmesartan 40 mg /24h

angiotensin II-receptor blocker, telmisartan

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril 10mg/d

antiarrhythmic drugs, classes IA, IC, III

antiarrhythmics, amiodarone

antibiotic prophylaxis, mainly quinolones

antibiotic treatment

antibiotics (meropenem 500 mg t.i.d.) at admission

antibiotics, amoxicillin or cefdinir for 7 days, in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food

antibiotics: cefotaxime and metronidazole IV first, then ciprofloxacine and metronidazole PO

antibiotics: ertapenem IV (1 g/d) for 3 days followed by 7 days of levofloxacin PO (500 mg once daily) and metronidazole PO (500 mg 3 times per day)

antibiotics: IV for 2 days, then PO for 10 days

anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412

anticoagulants, direct thrombin inhibitors, ximelagatran

anticoagulants, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, rivaroxaban

anticoagulants, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, rivaroxaban, antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, clopidogrel

anticoagulants, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, 10 mg twice daily for 7 days, then 5 mg twice daily for 6 months

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, 2.5 mg twice daily for 30 days

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily, extended treatment for one year after 6-12 months

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, 5 mg twice daily

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban, 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban, 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily, in addition to double antiplatelet treatment

anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily

anticoagulants, pentasacharide analogues, fondaparinux 2.5 mg/d for 45 days

anticoagulation alone, vitamin K antagonists

anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP)


antihistamínicos-h2, proton pump inhibitors

antihistamínicos-h2, sucralfato

antihypertensive drugs, no information at all about which specific antihypertensive drugs were studied

antimicrobials or antibiotics with/without steroids topical drops, for 7 to 14 days depending on symptoms

antioxidant supplements: beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E, but not vitamin C or selenium

antioxidant supplements: vitamin D, ordinary doses (mean 500 UI/day)

antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose, 75 mg/d after) added to fibrinolysis plus aspirin plus heparin

antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/d) added to standard Tt (aspirin 100%, fibrinolysis 50%, anticoagulant 75%)

antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/day) plus aspirin

antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/day) plus aspirin (75-100 mg/day)

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin 300 mg/d

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin plus dipyridamole combined

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, clopidogrel, perioperative use

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, dipyridamole

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, low-dose (75-150 mg/d), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel

antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, pre-operative use

antiplatelet drugs, low dose aspirin (>50 mg/d)

antiplatelet drugs, low dose aspirin (30 mg/d)

antiplatelet drugs, P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/d)

antipsychotic drugs, neuroleptics, atypical, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone

antipsychotic drugs, neuroleptics, conventional

antipsychotic drugs, neuroleptics, conventional, atypicals

antipsychotic drugs, neuroleptics, conventional, haloperidol

antithyroid drugs, low-dose 12 month regimen

antivirals, aded to corticosteroids

any anitplatelet drug, mainly aspirin (95% of included patients)

any antihypertensive drug therapy

any clinical characteristic, either in women or in men

any error in identifying the year, month, day of the month or day of the week; and an error of >1 h in identifying the time of day

Any of 3 most commonly employed scores: HAS-BLED, ATRIA and HEMORR2 HAGES

any single antiplatelet agent, aspirin, ticlodipine

APACHE II score of 11 or greater, esophageal varices, stigmata of recent hemorrhage and unstable comorbidity on admission

artemether, artesunate, intramuscular

arterial blood gas analysis

artesunate, intravenous (2.4 mg/kg as a bolus at 0, 12, and 24 h)

artesunate, intravenous or intramuscular

as-needed corticosteroids, intermittent short-courses of inhaled or oral corticosteroids


aspirin (325 mg daily)

aspirin and/or clopidogrel associated to warfarin

aspirin dose, 75 mg daily or more, for more than 5 years

aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole (25 mg/200mg twice daily)

aspirin, 100 mg daily

aspirin, 150 mg/day

aspirin, 75 mg daily or more, for at least 2.8 years

aspirin, 75 mg daily or more, for more than 5 years

aspirin, added to vitamin K antagonists, warfarin

aspirin, low dose (75 mg/d)

Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC): penetrating mechanism, positive focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST), arrival systolic blood pressure =< 90 mm Hg, and arrival heart rate > 120 bpm

auscultation of S3 on physical examination, lung ultrasound, bedside echocardiography, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

autologous T-cell therapy, autologous CD4+ T cells against NY-ESO-1

automated image-based pattern analysis of fluorine-18-labelled-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (positron emission tompgraphy)


azithromycin (single 1-g dose of two 500-mg tablets)

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine

Balthazar score, early computed tomography

bariatric surgery, specially gastric bypass, more than banded gastroplasty or adjustable gastric banding

baricitinib, thyrosin kinase inhibitors, Janus kinases JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor

baseline vitamin D 25(OH)D levels


beta blockers

beta blockers, carvedilol

beta blockers, mainly atenolol

beta blockers, metoprolol

beta blockers, metoprolol, peri-operative

beta blockers, nebivolol (Temerit TM)

beta blockers, tratamiento endoscópico, esclerosis

beta blockers, tto endoscópico, ligadura

beta lactam monotherapy

beta lactam monotherapy , empirical antibiotics

beta lactam monotherapy with anti-pseudomonal drugs, piperacillin-tazobactam


beta-lactam monotherapy, as intitial empiric antibiotic

big data coupled with machine learning

bisphosphonates, alendronate (10 mg daily)

bisphosphonates, regularly administered at high dose IV

bisphosphonates, risedronate, combined with vitamin D (1000 IU/d ergocalciferol) and calcium (1200mg/d)

bisphosphonates, zoledronate, single IV infusion (5 mg every 2 months)

bisphosphonates, zoledronate, yearly IV infusion (5 mg starting 3 months after surgery), with supplemental vitamin D and calcium

blood cultures guided by clinical sttings : shock, shaking chills, or systemic inflammatory response sd (fever >38ºC, tachycardia, tachypnea, pCO2<32, leucocytosis)

blood pressure (BP)

body mass index (BMI), platelet count, serum albumin, and total bilirubin level

body mass index (BMI, weight in Kg/ square of height in m)

brain activation at the temporoparietal junction on the right side

brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) guided therapy

brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), added to standard diagnostic strategy

brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), plasma N-terminal pro-A-type and pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP)

bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation

B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP) and troponins

bubble continuous positive airway pressure

buckwheat honey

budesonide, oral, enteral liberation formulation, 9 mg daily (entocort (r))

bupropion-SR, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR

C282Y homozygocity

calcium (1 g/d) plus vitamin D3 (400 UI/d) supplementation

calcium channel blockers

calcium channel blockers, amlodipino

calcium channel blockers, first-generation

calcium, with or without vitamin D supplementation

calidad atención médica, hospitales universitarios

cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) blockers, rimonabant 20mg/day, added to hypocaloric diet

carbamazepine, phenytoin

cardiac computed tomography angiography , and also, in addition, left ventricle ejection fraction

cardiac pacing, permanent pace-maker

cardiac-resynchronization by biventricular stimulation added to an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

cardiac-resynchronization by biventricular stimulation with a pacemaker

cardioselective beta-blockers

cardioselective beta-blockers, given in addition to inhaled corticosteroid and long acting β agonist, with or without long acting antimuscarinic

care with interpretation and dissemination of results

carotid artery stenting

carotid endarterectomy

carotid-artery stenting with an emboli-protection device

caspofungin, empirical antifungal therapy, echinocandin class

catheter ablation

catheter ablation, circumferential pulmonary vein ablation

catheter ablation, radiofrequency

catheter ablation, radiofrequency AND and antiarrhythmic drugs (various)

CD4 cell count, type of oportunistic associated infection

central database, through a secure Web site, for collecting data

cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 42), total tau protein and phosphorylated tau protein

cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated-threonine 181 (P-tau)

chemotherapy combining irinotecan or oxiplatin with fluorouracil and folinic acid

chemotherapy containing cisplatin

chest compression alone

chest radiograph

cholinesterase inhibitors

cholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil

cholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine

chronic infections, sropositivity to helicobacter pylori, clamidia pneumoniae, citomegalovirus

chronic kidney disease measures (anemia, microalbuminuria, and GFR of <60 mL/min)


classic cardiovascular risk factors: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and hyper-cholesterolemia

classificating patients in 4 classes: four classes: relatively healthy (LC1), malnourished (LC2), cognitive and mood impaired (LC3), and globally impaired (LC4)

classifying stroke subtype according to mechanism, using the TOAST schemes

classifying stroke subtype according to mechanism, using various schemes (TOAST, ASCO, CSS)

clinical criteria, Framingham criteria

clinical features:

clinical features: sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, and fainting

clinical items: >45 years, dyspnoea, wheezing, current smoking and extensive smoking (>40 pack years), previous consult for wheezing, self-reported history of COPD, auscultatory wheezing, forced expiratory time, laryngeal height, prolonged expiration

clinical medication reviews

clinically integrated teaching of evidence based medicine

Cockcroft-Gault equation

cognitive therapy

cognitive training

cognitive training, physical exercise

colangiopancreatografía por resonancia magnética

colchicine, added to conventional therapy (aspirin or corticosteroids)

colloid albumin-containing solutions

combination of an angiotensin converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor AND an angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB)

combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, ramipril) plus angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB, telmisartan)

combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril) plus angiotensin II receptor blockers (losartan)

combination of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, benazepril, plus a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine

combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (beclomethasone, albuterol) as on-demand reliever Tt

combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (budesonide, formoterol) as on-demand reliever Tt

combination of nebulized epinephrine (3 ml of epinephrine in a 1:1000 solution, x2 days) and oral dexamethasone (1.0 mg/Kg 1st day and 0.6 mg/Kg for 5 days)

combined antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/d) added to aspirin (325 mg/d)

combined antiplatelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/d) plus low-dose aspirin

combined anti-platelet drugs, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel, added to aspirin,

combined antiplatelet drugs, P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel (75 mg/d) added to low-dose aspirin

combined antiplatelet drugs, P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel (initial dose of 300 mg, followed by 75 mg/day) plus aspirin (50-300 mg/day) for 90 days

combined antiplatelet drugs, P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel (initial dose of 300 mg, followed by 75 mg/day) plus aspirin (75 mg/day) for 90 days

combined antiplatelet drugs, P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel, plus aspirin

combined corticosteroid and antiviral treatment

combined corticosteroid and antiviral treatment (prednisolone for 10 days starting 60 mg/d + famciclovir 750 mg/d for 7 days)

combined long-acting beta2 agonists plus corticosteroids, inhaled

combined treatment with vasopressin (20 IU) plus epinephrine (1 mg) each 3 minutes for 5 times, plus 40 mg methylprednisolone IV once, plus hydrocortisone (300 mg/d for 7 days) in patients with shock after resuscitation

combined Tt with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

commons components of geriatric assesment (age, sex, cognitive impairment and Barthel index) or the Geriatric Index of Comorbidity

comprehensive geriatric assessment

compression therapy, compression stockings

computed tomographic angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography

computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy)

computed tomography (CT)

computed tomography (CT) angiography

computed tomography (CT) of the appendix

computed tomography angiography

computerized advice on drug, computer treatment prescription support

computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs), a variety of

computerized cognitive training, group based training

conservative oxygen therapy with a SpO2 of 94-96% as objective

CONSORT statement: : a checklist plus a flow diagram

continuous glucose monitoring, added to intensive insulin Tt

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

copeptin, added to troponin

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

coronary artery bypass surgery

coronary multidetector computed tomography

coronary multidetector computed tomography, 64-slice CT coronary angiography

coronary multidetector computed tomography, 64-slice or higher

coronary multidetector computed tomography, added to clinical estimate

coronary multidetector computed tomography, computed tomography coronary angiography



corticosteroids, 5 days course of low dose (300 mg hydrocortisone)

corticosteroids, 7 days course of lower doses (1 200 mg hydrocortisone equivalents)

corticosteroids, a several days course of low dose

corticosteroids, dexamethasone

corticosteroids, hydrocortisone (50 mg/6h for 5 days and tapering)

corticosteroids, hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone for 7 days (hydrocortisone 50mg IV /6 hours, fludrocortisone 50μg /d PO/SNG)

corticosteroids, inhaled

corticosteroids, inhaled (budesonide), combined with inhaled long-acting beta2 agonists (formoterol), added to inhaled long-acting anticholinergics (tiotropium)

corticosteroids, inhaled (fluticasone), alone or combined with inhaled long-acting beta2 agonists

corticosteroids, inhaled, fluticasone

corticosteroids, inhaled, high dose, budesonide

corticosteroids, methylprednisolone 0.5 mg/kg /12h IV

corticosteroids, prednisolone, 10 days short course

corticosteroids, prednisolone, 10 days short course (60 mg x 5 days and fast reduction)

corticosteroids, short-term (recorded within the first month of therapy) low-dose (equivalent to < 15 mg prednisolone daily)

crisis checklists for the operating room

crystalloids solutions

cuando avanzada, tras complicación aguda

CURB65 and CRB65 scores (1 point each for Confusion, Urea >7 mmol/l, Respiratory rate >30/min, low systolic (<90 mmHg) or diastolic (<60 mmHg) Blood pressure), age >65 years

current levels of resistance of S pneumoniae to antibiotics in Spain

cyclooxgenase-2 inhibitors, celecoxib

cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, coxibs, rofecoxib

cyclophosphamide (< or =2 mg/Kg/day for 1 year)

cyclosporine (4 mg/, added to standard treatment

cystatin C, alone or added to creatinine, to estimate glomerular filtration rate

D dimer

D dimer, determination 1 month after stopping anticoagulation, duration of therapy

D dimer, determination after 3 months of anticoagulation, duration of therapy

D dimer, determination after 3 or more months of anticoagulation, duration of therapy

D dimer, lung scan, spiral CT, ultrasonography of leg veins

daclatasvir 60 mg/day (HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir 400 mg/day (nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor)

daily use of a portion control plate

dalfampridine (4-aminopyridine), extended-release 10mg twice daily, voltage-dependent potassium channel blocker improving in demyelinated pathways

decidiendo parar rcp

decompressive surgery

decompressive surgery by hemicraniectomy

delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance

depiction of by-subject data, signification of pairing when present, symbols to identify relevant subgroups and small multiples (an array of similar graphics each depicting one group)

detailed clinical history, chest x-ray, pulmonary function tests, high resolution computed tomography and for some patients bronchoscopy and/or pulmonary biopsy

dexamethasone, 40 mg/day VO

dexamethasone, single 10 to 24 mg IV dose

dextran 70 or polygeline as plasma expanders in total paracentesis

dextromethorphan-quinidine combination

diabetes, hiperlipidemia

diagnosis of dementia

digitalis, digoxin


direct decompressive surgery

direct oral anticoagulants, anti-Xa, apixaban, 2.5 mg twice daily, for 6 months

direct oral anticoagulants, anti-Xa, edoxaban, 60 mg once daily

direct oral anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors, apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, idraparinux

discontinuing antibiotic treatment (amoxi 3 IV gr/day) after 3 days

distribution on the chest wall with respect to the 3rd left parasternal space

diuretic, indapamide, plus, if needed, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), perindopril


diuretics, aldosterone blockers, eplerenone, added to recommended therapy

diuretics, thiazides

diuretics, thiazides, chlortalidone

diuretics, thiazides, hydrochlorothiazide, low dose 12,5 -25mg /day, first line treatment

diverse drugs for urgency urinary incontinence: fesoterodine, tolterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, trospium

dopamine agonists, pramipexole (0.5 mg x3/day)

dopamine agonists, ropinirole

double inhaled therapy, combining long-acting beta-agonist and inhaled corticosteroids

doxazosin, finasteride, and combination therapy

drug treatments targeted to increase high density lipoprotein: niacin, fibrates, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors

drug-eluting stents, sirolimus

drug-eluting stents, sirolimus, paclitaxel

drug-eluting stents, specially using everolimus, sirolimus and zotarolimus, but not those using paclitaxel

dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin + P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or prasugrel)) for 30 months

dual treatment with dabigatran 110 mg twice daily plus an a P2Y12inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) antiplatelet

dual treatment with INR adjusted warfarin plus clopidogrel

Duke criteria for endocarditis, abdominal CT, nuclear scanning with a technetium-based isotope, liver biopsy

duplex Doppler ultrasound measuring splenoportal index (SPI): splenic index divided by mean portal vein velocity

dyspnea, tachycardia, pulsus paradoxus, elevated jugular venous pressure, and cardiomegaly on chest radiograph

early (first 72 h) transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), after emergency sclerotherapy

early ambulation

early antibiotic administration within 4 hours of arrival at the hospital

early bypass

early discontinuation of aspirin, 6 or more days before surgery

early enteral tube feeding (in the first 7 days)

early goal-directed therapy for 6 h (transfusion, dobutamine directed by central venous oxygen saturation) added to standard therapy

early initiation of antiretroviral therapy at CD4+ count < 350 and > 200, in asymptomatic patients

early initiation of antiretroviral therapy at CD4+ count > 350 or > 500, in asymptomatic patients

early intravenous beta-blockers (metoprolol, up to 15 mg IV then 200 mg oral daily

early invasive strategy of coronary angiography and revascularization when feasible

early invasive strategy of coronary angiography between 4 and 48 hours and revascularization when feasible

early invasive strategy of coronary angiography revascularization when feasible

early invasive strategy with coronary angiography and, if appropriate, revascularisation within 7 days

early invasive strategy, early revascularization, angioplasty or surgical

early palliative care, integrated with standard oncologic care

early start of hemodialysis, with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2)

early surgery, urgent (<48 h)

early treatment with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, angioplasty

early, goal-directed therapy


education including academic detailing, multi-faceted educational approaches

effective regurgitant orifice, echographically measured

elective cesarean section and antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods

emotional stress

empirical antibiotics, beta lactam monotherapy

empirical Helicobacter pylori eradication, without any diagnostic test

encouraging both kinds of reasoning, system 1 (non-analytical) and system 2 (analytical)

endoscopia, cirugía

endoscopic stigmata of hemorrhage

endoscopic stigmata of hemorrhage, shock at admission

endoscopic stignmata of recent hemorrhage, specially ulcers with visible vessels

endoscopic variceal ligation

endovascular coiling

endovascular treatment: thrombectomy plus stenting, on top of thrombolysis

endovascular treatment: thrombectomy, late

epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor

epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, 50 mg 3 times/day

epidemiological features, clinical characteristics

epidural blood patch

episodic antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4 count: stop when >350 until <250

eprodisate, interfere with interactions between amyloidogenic proteins and glycosaminoglycans

eradication using 1-day, 4-drug regimen (bismuth 524mg/6h, metronidazole 500mg/6h, amoxicillin 2g/6h, lansoprazole 60mg/d)

eradication using 4-drug regimen (bismuth, metronidazole, amoxicillin, proton pump inhibitor) for 10-14 days

eradication using levofloxacin plus amoxicillin plus proton pump inhibitors for 10 days

erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, erythropoietin

erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, erythropoietin, targeting higher hemoglobin levels

erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, supplemented by iron therapy

erythropoietin analogs, recombinant human erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

estadiaje, tomografía de emisión de positrones, pet

exercise and multifactorial programs

exercise regular, actividad social, vida productiva

exercise regular, enfermedad coronaria

exercise test, stop exercise before reaching 85% of maximal heart rate (HR) and Increased HR at rest, attenuated HR increase or delayed HR recovery

exercise training

exercise training, 2-3 times/week, 1 hour sessions, combining stretching and indoor cycling, non-pharmacological therapy

exercise, individualized moderate-intensity resistance, balance, and walking exercises, in 2 daily sessions

exercise, physical therapy, kinesitherapy

experts recommendations given in narrative review articles

factores de riesgo

factores de riesgo, H.pylori, aines

fasting hyperglycaemia

fecal occult blood test (hemoccult)

fermented milk with Lactobacillus

fermented milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, daily

fever, rebound tenderness, midabdominal pain migrating to the right lower quadrant and a white blood cell count above 10,000

fibrates, fenofibrate 200 mg daily


fibrosis inhibitor, hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, pirfenidone

fidaxomicin, 200 mg twice daily for 10 days, new class of narrow spectrum non-absorbable macrocyclic antibiotic


first-generation typical neuroleptics, haloperidol, second-generation atypical neuroleptics, risperidone

fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide

fixed dose of isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine, added to standard Tt (including ACE or AR inhibitors)

fluid restriction

fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin (initially IV but soon PO)

fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin

fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin (400 mg/d)

fluoxetine, 20 mg once daily for 3 months, antidepressant, selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)

folic acid supplementation, 800 mug daily, long term

folic acid supplementation, alone or combined with vitamin B6, B12

follow-up after discharge, case management with telephone calls and visits led by a heart failure specialist nurse

follow-up after discharge, home-based multidiscipinary intervention, lead by a trained nurse

four common, appropriate, medication classes: warfarin, insulins, oral antiplatelet drugs, and oral hypoglycemic agents

four multimorbidity patterns: Cardiovascular, Induced Dependency (around cognitive decline and dementia), Falls and Osteoarticular

frequency of use of anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists

frequent egg consumption (> 7 eggs/week)

frequent higher dose very early mobilization, < first 24 hours

frequent nut consumption, particularly peanuts

frequent salad vegetable consumption

further reduction of resting heart rate using beta blockers (or calcium channel blockers)

GBS score = 0 (normal urea, normal Hgb, PAS>120, pulse<100, no melena, no syncope, no liver disease, no heart failure)

gefitinib, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor

general health checks

genetic variants of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), the target of warfarin

ginkgo biloba

glucose-insulin-potassium infusion

glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, anti-platelet

good adherence to drug therapy

GRADE system, rating strength of recommendations and quality of evidence, simple ways

graduated compression stockings

graduated compression stockings, applied on the day of surgery and worn up until discharge or until the patients were fully mobile

group and home-based exercise programmes, home safety interventions, Tai Chi, multifactorial assessment and intervention programmes

guidelines for their use in practice

guidelines, methodological standards for evaluate its quality

HAS-BLED score: Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly (1 point each, 0 = low risk, 1-2 = moderate, >=3 = high risk)

helical computed tomographic (CT) angiography

helical CT

helical CT angiography

hemodynamic instability, comorbid illness, active bleeding at endoscopy, posterior duodenal or lesser gastric curvature ulcer

heparin, low molecular weight

heparin, low molecular weight, dalteparin full-dose (100 IU/Kg/12h)

heparin, low molecular weight, unfractionated

heparin, unfractionated, continuous intravenous heparin

hialuronic acid derivatives, glucosamine

hialuronic acid derivatives, glucosamine, chondroitin

high blood pressure target, mean BP of 80 to 85 mmHg

high body fat (>33% in women, >24% in men) in normal weight people

high dose acetylcysteine (1200 mg IV, then 1200 mg orally/12h for 2 days)

high dose corticosteroids, oral methylprednisolone (500 mg/day for 5 days, 10-day tapering period)

high dose statins, atorvastatin 80 mg daily, or rosuvastatin 40 mg daily

high dose statins, atorvastatin 80 mg/d

high red meat and processed meat consumption

high strenght: various preventive intervantions, oral vancomycine, fidaxomicin. Low strenght: probiotics, fecal transplantation

high-calorie supplements

high-dose methylprednisolone (1 gr/day x 3 days)

higher lifestyle cognitive activity and higher current physical activity

higher starting dose: 10 mg/day

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAAR), 3 drugs, efavirenz (Sustiva(R)) + 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (ex. Combivir(R) or Kivexa(R))

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAAR), 3 drugs, zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz (Combivir(R) + Sustiva(R))

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAAR), 4 drugs, zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz + nelfinavir, OR didanosine + stavudine + efavirenz + nelfinavir

high-sensitive cardiac troponin assays

high-sensitive cardiac troponin, combining absolute inital value with changes in the first hour

high-sensitive cardiac troponin, increased cutoff at 40-50 ng/L in older patients and renal failure

histamine2-receptor antagonists, sucralfate

historia natural

history and physical examination


hormonal replacement therapy, estrogen plus progestin

hormonal sustitution, estrogen plus progestin

human immune globulin, intravenou, every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks

human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), denosumab, 60 mg SC every 6 months

human recombinant tissue transglutaminase antibody


hypertonic saline, 3% to 7.5% sodium, dose: 2 to 5 mosm/Kg or about 250 mosm

hypothermia, mild, immediatly after resuscitation

ibrutinib, Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor


ice chips

idarucizumab, an dabigatran-specific antibody fragment

imatinib, BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor

immediate use of antibiotics, ampicillin, amoxicillin

Immunotherapy, individualized tumor vaccine, after resection

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

implantable haemodynamic monitoring devices, wireless pulmonary artery pression recorder

in patients taking calcium channel antagonists, macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin, erythromycin, which inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4

incidence of symptomatic chronic pulmonary hypertension secondary to the disease

incretin enhancer, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors

incretin enhancer, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, sitagliptin, 100mg once-daily

incretin mimetic (glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue), incretin enhancer (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor)

indicaciones tac

indirect comparisons, using

infectious disease burden, measure in disability-adjusted life years caused by 28 common infectious diseases

influenza vaccination of healthcare workers

inhaled anticholinergics

inhaled anticholinergics added to inhaled beta-agonists

inhaled anticholinergics, ipratropium bromide

inhaled anticholinergics, long acting, tiotropium

inhaled anticholinergics, long acting, tiotropium, using mist inhaler

inhaled beta2 agonist, long-term fixed regular use

inhaled corticosteroids, fluticasone, budesonide

inhaled corticosteroids, specially fluticasone, less budesonide

inhaled insulin, premeal, plus basal ultralente subcutaneous insulin

inhaled insulin, premeal, plus bedtime ultralente subcutaneous insulin

inhaled insulin, premeal, plus once/day lente subcutaneous insulin

inhaled long-acting anticholinergics, tiotropium

inhaled long-acting beta2 agonist, long-term regular use

inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists

inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist (salmeterol) as on-demand reliever Tt, added to usual treatment

inhibidores de la integrina, natalizumab

initial combination therapy, with tapered high-dose prednisone, or with infliximab

initial empiric antibiotic regimen with: 2nd or 3rd-generation cephalosporin plus macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone alone

initial empiric antibiotic regimen with: atypical pathogens coverage

initial empiric antibiotic regimen with: atypical pathogens coverage: macrolide or quinolone

initial empiric antibiotic regimen with: dual therapy combining any beta-lactamic or fluoroquinolone with macrolide,

initial empiric treatment including a macrolide

INR values in excess

insufficient therapeutic education, polypharmacy, and INR above therapeutic range

intake of a little amount of gluten (<10 mg/day)

intensified multifactorial intervention: tight glucose control plus use of renin-angiotensin system blockers, aspirin, and lipid-lowering agents (statins)

intensive blood-pressure control

intensive blood-pressure control: target SBP < 120 mmHg

intensive dietary intervention to reduce fat intake and increased intakes of vegetables, fruits, and grains

intensive follow up, using frequent computed tomography (CT) and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

intensive follow up, using more test, including liver imaging

intensive glucose control

intensive glucose control (strict glucose targets and rapid scalade in treatments)

intensive glucose control, targeting glycated hemoglobin < 6.0%

intensive insulin therapy

Intensive insulin therapy during 6.5 years: 3 or more daily injections or insulin pump, with > 4 daily glucose measurements

intensive insulin therapy OR colloid (pentastarch, HES) for fluid resuscitation

intensive insulin therapy, insulin infusion to get glycaemia 4.4 to 6 mmol/L

intensive renal-replacement therapy: intermittent hemodialysis 6 days/week if hemodynamically stables, 35 ml/Kg continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration if hemodynamically unstable

interferon beta, 22 or 44 microg SC 3 times a week

interferon beta, 30 µg/week IM

interferon beta, 8 million IU SC every other day

interferón, ribavirina

interferon-alpha and ribavirin for 48 weeks

intermitent, as needed inhaled corticosteroids

internet based learning

Intervention to be defined

intestinal capsule endoscopy

intraarterial treatment: thrombectomy plus stenting, on top of thrombolysis

intracoronary bone marrow cell therapy

intracranial surgery, including: craniotomy, stereotactic endoscopic evacuation or stereotactic aspiration

intranasal corticosteroids

intravenous antibiotics

Intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg single infusion)

Intravenous immunoglobulin followed by oral prednisone

intravenous immunoglobulin, administered in the first two weeks after onset

introducing 4 evidence-based protocols

isotonic (0.9% saline) hydration

isotonic crystalloids

isotonic normal saline


IV 1.26% sodium bicarbonate and/or 5 days of oral acetylcysteine

IV immunoglobulin

IV insulin-and-glucose, inhaled beta-agonists

ivabradine, added to beta-blockers

ivabradine, eventually on top of beta-blockers

knowing high attrition rates exists

knowing how physicians derive healthcare decisions: relying in mindlines obtained trought formal and informal networking in a community of practice

knowing long-term mortality

knowing long-term mortality, a mathematical multivariate model (Seattle Heart Failure Model) including 14 continuous variables and 10 categorical values

knowing long-term mortality, stratified by ages, in France

knowing natural history

knowing prevalence and distribution of multimobidity

knowing that natural history is benign

knowing the existence of hepatitis E and characteristics

knowledge of natural history


lamotrigine (Lamictal(R))

late (2 - 15 days after MI) routine percutaneous revascularization

lean body weight (or an estimate)

ledipasvir (HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) for 12 weeks

ledipasvir (HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) for 12 weeks

lenalidomide, thalidomide analogue, 25 mg/month per os, plus dexamethasone

length of life of centenarian people

lenient rate control (resting heart rate <110 beats/min)

leukocytes count, Inflammation parameters

leukotriene antagonists

levetiracetam (Keppra(R)) 2000 mg/d

levodopa, at different doses (150, 300 or 600 mg/d)

levothyroxine, L-thyroxine

lifestyle modification and drugs (sibutramine 15mg/day) together

lifestyle-modification program, oral hypoglycemic agents, metformine

lifestyle-modification program: weight loss, reduce intake of fat, and increase physical activity

limpiar traumas, escribir

listing of task pending to be implemented in this application

lithium (0.25-0.5 mmol/l)

lithium, extended-release venlafaxine and selegiline

long acting insulin (bedtime glargine insulin (Lantus-TM)) plus oral hypoglycemic agents combination

long acting insulin (detemir), basal, once daily or short acting insulin (aspart), prandial, three times daily, added to oral hypoglycemic agents

long acting insulin, insulin detemir (Levemir-TM), basal, once or twice daily, added to oral hypoglycemic agents

long term low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), dalteparin

long term low molecular weight heparins (LMWH)

long term mortality (fatal outcome)

long-acting beta(2)-agonists, formoterol added to inhaled corticoisteroids, budesonide

long-acting beta2 agonists plus corticosteroids, inhaled and oxygen ; pulmonary rehabilitation

longer time in medical practice, longer time after medical graduation, older age

long-term antibiotics, azithromycin 250 mg daily for 1 year

long-term antibiotics, macrolides, for 3 to 12 months

long-term clinical course

long-term intermittent IV dobutamine infusion, plus amiodarone

long-term low molecular weight heparins, tinzaparin, body-weight adjusted, for 3 months

loops diuretics, furosemide, intravenously, at low dose, in bolus every 12h


lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg) IV

lorazepam IV (2 mg, repeated once if needed)

low dose corticosteroids, 7.5 mg/day of prednisolone, for 6 weeks

low dose of prophylactic platelets transfusions: 1.1x10(11)/m2 body-surface area

low dose oral vitamin K (1.25mg)

low health literacy, low cognitive abilities (delayed recall of 3 items and inability to serial subtract numbers)

low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), added to aspirin

low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), enoxaparin 40 mg/d

low molecular weight heparins

low molecular weight heparins (fixed dose, subcutaneous)

low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), enoxaparin, for at least 2 days

low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), for 4 to 8 days

low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), nadroparin (4100 anti-factor Xa IU twice daily for 10 days)

low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), reviparin, for 7 days

low protein diet

low protein diet (0.58 g/Kg/day) or very low protein diet

low protein diet (ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 g/kg/day)

low-carbohydrate diet, or low-carbohydrate Mediterranean diet

low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet (Atkins diet)

low-dose IV cyclophosphamide (cumulative dose 3 gm), followed by azathioprine

low-dose rivaroxaban (15 mg /d) plus an P2Y12 inhibitor antiplatelet for 12 months OR very-low-dose rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus dual antiplatelet for 1, 6, or 12 months

low-dose thiazide diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), and calcium channel blockers

low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH)

lung-volume-reduction surgery

magnetic resonance angiography

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart, with adenosine stress

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy

magnitude of left ventricle hypertrophy

maintaining cholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil

maintaining previous Tt with beta blockers


mammography screening

mantaining dual antiplatelet after 1 year with ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily or 60 mg twice daily) plus low-dose aspirin

measured 24-hour creatinine clearance, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, Mayo Clinic quadratic equation

Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, or with mixed nuts

medium-long acting insulin (bedtime NPH) plus oral hypoglycemic agents combination

methotrexate (10 mg/week for 48 weeks) folllowing the end of prednisone treatment (25 mg/d, tapered to 0 in 24 weeks)

minimally absorbed antibiotics, rifaximin 550 mg twice daily


misoprostol, vaginal (800 mcg)

moderately (14-21 units/week) or high (>30 units/week) alcohol consumtion

modest blood pressure reduction by angiotensin II receptor blockers, candesartan

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation

monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab, added to chemotherapy

more rapid administration of antibiotics and rapid completion of a 3-hour bundle of sepsis care (i.e., blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotic agents, and lactate measurement)


mucolytics, carbocisteine

mucolytics, N-acetylcysteine

Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast and without oral contrast

Multidimensional Prognostic Index as frailty index (calculated from scoring 8 domains: ADL, IADL, cognition, comorbidity, nutrition, number of drugs, co-habitation status) low risk if MPI<0.33, high risk if >0.66

multifaceted educational intervention combining: opinion leaders, interactive workshops, training of manual skills, detailing visits with attendants, reminders, and feedback

multifaceted pharmaceutical care provided in a variety of settings

multimodal interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance

mycophenolate mofetil, target dose 3 g/d

n-3 fatty acids, 1g capsule of ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids

naftidrofuryl, a vasoactive agent

natalizumab, inhibition of lymphocyte surface vascular adhesive protein integrin, every 28 days for 6 months

natural cytotoxic activity of peripheral-blood lymphocytes

natural frequencies, absolute frequencies, absolute risk reduction (ARR)

natural history, follow-up of ventilatory function, FEV1

natural history, risk after isolated optic neuritis

natural history, without highly-active antiretroviral therapy

nebulized hypertonic 3% saline solution

nebulized hypertonic 3% saline solution (plus albuterol)

nebulized hypertonic 5% saline solution, 4 times a day

necropsy, autopsy

needle aspiration, repeated if needed


neuroimaging studies: positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

neuropsychological tests and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, added to drugs

new onset rectal bleeding in patients aged 45 or more

nine tentative hallmarks: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication

nitrates, IV isosorbide-5-mononitrate

N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonists, memantine

no bridging anticoagulation, just stopping warfarin 5 days before the procedure and resuming it within 24 hours afterwards

no pain when seated, improvement when bending forward, bilateral buttock or leg pain, and neurogenic claudication

no treatment, unless seizure recurrs

nonexercise activity thermogenesis, posture and movements in routines of daily life

nonfasting triglycerides

noninvasive cardiac monitoring, Holter ECG monitoring, event loop recording

non-invasive strategy, urea breath test only and treatment if positive (7 days course of omeprazol, clarithromycin and amoxicillin)

non-invasive test, (13C) or (14C)-urea breath test

non-invasive ventilation

noninvasive ventilation, either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV)

non-peptidic protease inhibitors, tipranavir, boosted by ritonavir, plus optimised background regimen

non-pharmacological intervention: providing a clock and calendar, avoiding sensory deprivation (glasses, denture, hearing aids), familiar objects in the room, reorientation by family members, extended visitation times (5 h)

non-pharmacological treatment, alternative therapies, yoga

non-pharmacological treatment, alternative therapies, yoga of awareness

non-smokers, never smokers patients

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (diclofenac, ketorolac, indomethacin)

nortriptyline and gabapentin combined

NSAID (naproxen 500 mg) plus sumatriptan (85 mg)

NSAIDs, ketoprofen

N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) guided therapy

N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) guided therapy, intensive patient management

N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) guided therapy, objective < 1.000 ng/ml

nucleoside analogues, entecavir 0.5 mg/d

number of metabolic Sd factors: central obesity, hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, impaired glucose metabolism

nutritional supplements,

nutritional supplements, extra protein and energy apports

omega-3 fatty acids

once daily inhaled corticosteroids

once-a-day dosing aminoglycosides

once-a-day dosing, gentamicin

oncogenic signature classes: patterns of combined genetic and epigenetic features

on-screen, point-of-care computer reminders

opioids analgesics, immediate-release morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone/acetaminophen

opioids, benzodiazepines, dihydropyridines calcium channel blockers, antihistamines and possibly (uncertain) H(2) antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, antiparkinson medications, steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antimuscarinics

oral and sublingual lisinopril, oral and intravenous labetalol

oral antibiotics

oral antibiotics, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin

oral antibiotics, quinolones alone or combined, in non severelly ill patients (not having: leukaemia, haemodynamical instability, organ failure, pneumonia, infection of a central line or a severe soft-tissue infection)

oral corticosteroids,

oral corticosteroids, prednisone 40mg/d decreasing over 40 days

oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, 110 or 150 mg twice daily fixed dose

oral direct thrombin inhibitors, dabigatran, 150 mg twice daily fixed dose

oral hypoglycemic agents, glitazones (pioglitazone), in addition to pre-existing glucose-lowering drugs

oral hypoglycemic agents, glitazones (rosiglitazone)

oral hypoglycemic agents, metformin

oral hypoglycemic agents, sulphonylureas

oral hypoglycemic agents, sulphonylureas (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide)

oral loading dose of phenytoin: 15 mg/Kg single dose

oral loading dose of phenytoin: 20 mg/Kg in divided doses of 400 mg/2 hours

oral midazolam

oral non-absorbable antibiotics, rifaximin, for 2 weeks

oral nucleoside analogues, entecavir, tenofovir

oral nutritional supplements (per day: 400 ml, extra 995 kcal, 100% reference vitamins and minerals)

oral ondansetron

oral thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, eltrombopag

oral vitamin K1 (2.5mg if INR 6-10, 5mg if INR > 10)

out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiated by a bystander

outpatient bleeding risk index (BRI): 1 point for: age>65, history of stroke, history gastrointestinal bleeding, any of following (diabetes, recent myocardial infartion, anemia, creat>1.5mg/L)

overall clinical impression and 3 clinical predictors: altered mentation, focal neurologic examination, papilledema

oxazolidinones antibiotics, linezolid (600mg/12h)

oxygen, perioperative supplementation (80% FiO2)

oxygen, via a concentrator, nasal cannula, at 2 L per min

P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel, added to aspirin, combined anti-platelet therapy

P2Y12 inhibitors, prasugrel, added to aspirin, combined anti-platelet drugs

P2Y12 inhibitors, ticagrelor, added to aspirin, combined anti-platelet therapy

paediatric appendicitis score (PAS): 2 points for: right lower quadrant Tenderness, Cought/percussion/hoping tenderness; 1 point for: Migration of pain, Anorexia, Nausea/vomiting, Fever>38°, Leucocytosis>10 000, Neutrophilia> 7 500.

paracentesis, shunt porto-cava transyugular

participating in a randomized controlled trials

pathological signs of early metastatic invasion (venous emboli, lymphatic and perineural invasion)

pathology of small airways

patient self-monitoring of anticoagulation

patient self-monitoring of anticoagulation, with or without self-management

patient,s clinical characteristics



peginterferon alfa-2a alone

peginterferon alfa-2a alone (100 microg/week) for 1 year

pentasacharide analogues, fondaparinux

pentasacharide analogues, fondaparinux (2.5 mg/d SC) for 6 days

pentasacharide analogues, fondaparinux (2.5 mg/d) for 8 days

pentoxifylline 400 mg/8h PO for 4 weeks

pentoxifylline for 4 weeks

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

percutaneous left atrial appendage closure

percutaneous repair, percutaneous implantation of a clip that approximates the mitral leaflets

perfusion lung scan

perioperative chemotherapy: 3 preoperative and 3 postoperative cycles of epirubicin and cisplatin plus a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil for 21 days

persistent microalbuminuria

pharmaceutical care by a clinical pharmacist

pharmacogenetic guided dosing, a dosing algorithm that included both clinical variables and genotype data

pharmacogenetic guided dosing, using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype

pharmacogenetic guided dosing, using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, combined with clinical information in a formal algorithm

pharmacogenetic guided dosing, using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, combined with clinical information in an algorithm

physical activity

physical exercise, exercicse training

physicians with favourably views of episiotomy


Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI)

Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) based on age, coexisting disease, abnormal physical findings (respiratory rate > 30, temperature > 40°C), and abnormal laboratory findings (pH <7.35, urea > 11 mmol/L, sodium <130 mmol/L)

polypill, fixed-dose combinations of drugs

polypill, fixed-dose combinations of drugs, 75 mg aspirin, 40 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril, and 50 mg atenolol

potassium-enriched salt


pregabalin, flexible-dose regimen

preprinted order sheets

presence of 2 of 4 symptoms (headache, fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status) and of some signs (systemic compromise, low level of consciousness)

presence of brain infarction on imaging, diffusion-weighted MRI, new or old infarction in CT

presence of claudication, any arterial bruit or pulse abnormality, cool skin

presence of comorbidities, APACHE, need for ventilation for > 72h or extubation failure

prevalence over time, mortality, presence of associated hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes

primary percutaneous coronary intervention

PRISMA-7, a short 7-items questionnaire

probiotics, high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria

probiotics, mainly different types of lactobacillus


procalcitonin, antibiotics use according to procalcitonin (in mug/L): strongly discouraged < 0.1; discouraged < 0.25; encouraged > 0.25; strongly encouraged > 0.5

procalcitonin, treating with antibiotics according to serum procalcitonin levels

prognostic factors: Dukes stage, number of metastases, carcino-embryonic antigen, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin

prolonged immobilization in bed for > 3 months, in elderly

proper randomization method

prophylactic hemodialysis, added to fluid supplementation

prophylaxis using antiarrhythmics, amiodarone, 600 mg oral single dose per day from Day-1 to Day7 plus IV perfusion during surgery

propofol IV

proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib, IV sequential cycles

protocol-based care, early goal-directed therapy protocol (fluids, vasopressors, and blood transfusions adjusted to central hemodynamic targets), or a protocol standard therapy (did not require central venous catheter, inotropes, or blood transfusion)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), high-dose omeprazole (40 mg/6h IV)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole (40 mg/12h)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole (40mg/12h)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole (80mg IV before endoscopy)

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole (high-dose IV continuous infusion)

proton pump inhibitors, misoprostol

proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) (esomeprazole), added to aspirin

PSA>1.55 ng/mL or >0.165 ng/mL/cc(prostate volume), hypoechoic lesion, age>55y, prostate volume<44cc

psychological distress

publicaciones internacionales españolas

pulmonary artery catheter, Swan-Ganz

quick administration of effective antibiotics, in the first hour

quimioterapia cronomodulada, fluorouracilo, oxiplatino

quimioterapia regional hepática, vía arterial

quimioterapia, cisplatino, carboplatino

quimioterapia, fluorouracilo, infusión continua

quimioterapia, fluorouracilo, infusión continua, raltitrexed

quimioterapia, pacientes ancianos

quimioterapia, quimioterapia regional hepática, fluorouracilo, irinotecan

quinolones, oral levofloxacin (500 mg/d)

R788, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor

radiation therapy followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy: procarbazine, lomustine (also called CCNU), and vincristine, all at the time of initial diagnosis

radical prostatectomy

radiotherapy (focal, fractions of 1.8 Gy 5 days per week, total dose 50 Gy).

randomized controlled trials

randomized controlled trials, and concealed allocation

rapid defibrillation in less than 2 minutes

rate control strategy

recombinant activated factor VII

reduced dietary salt

reduction of dietary saturated fat by partially replacing by unsaturatef fats

regular exercise, 30 mins of moderate to vigorous physical activity per 6 days a week

remote clinical decision support system to monitore glucose and adapt treatment by messages to mobile phone

remote intercessory prayer, praying for others

remote intercessory prayer, praying for others, MIT therapy: music, imagery and touching

remote patient monitoring, regular structured telephone contact, or transfer of physiological data using scpecific devices

renal artery revascularization

renal artery revascularization, angioplasty

renal artery revascularization, stenting

renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, dapagliflozin, in monotherapy

renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, gliflozins and GLP-1 agonists, but NOT DPP-4 inhibitors

renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, gliflozins, canagliflozin, on top or in substitution of previous antidiabetes Tt

renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, gliflozins, dapagliflozin, on top or in substitution of previous antidiabetes Tt

renal sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, gliflozins, empagliflozin, on top or in substitution of previous antidiabetes Tt

renal tubule cells assist device (a conventional hemofilter lined by monolayers of renal cells)

renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB)

reports that the patient has memory loss, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) and Clock drawings

reproducibility of peer review of papers submitted for publication

rescue emergency angioplasty after failed thrombolytic therapy

restricted publication of trials when results are negative

resuming warfarin afterwards

revised Five-Factor Score (FFS): age >65 years, cardiac symptoms, gastrointestinal involvement, renal insufficiency, no ear-nose-and-throat symptoms (1 point each)

riesgo de muerte violenta

rituximab, anti CD20 B lymphocyte antibody, 375 mg per square meter of body-surface area per week for 4 weeks

rituximab, CD20 B lymphocyte depletion, 1 gr IV days 1 and 15

routine (3 to 28 days) invasive strategy, percutaneous coronary stenting

routine episiotomy

routine invasive strategy

routine invasive strategy (angiography and revascularization)

routine invasive strategy (angiography and revascularization), first 10 days

routine screening for coronary artery disease, adenosine-stress radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging

rutine oxygen

salmeterol, beta-agonistas inhalados

San Francisco Syncope Rule (presence of any of: 1) history of heart failure; 2) Hematocrit <30%; 3) abnormal ECG; 4) complaint of dyspnea; and 5 ) systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg

sanación a distancia

scaling and root planing (regular deep cleaning), as the initial nonsurgical treatment

scientific writing in virtual interdisciplinary groups

score (Jadad) to assess the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials

scores of the quality of clinical trials

screeing using annual PSA testing and digital rectal examination for 6 years

screening with the objective of performing carotid endarterectomy or stenting

search strategy: contacting other experts working in the field

seeking alternative diagnoses

selecting the PY212 antiplatelet (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) on the basis of a patient,s genetics, genotyping of ABCB1, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*17

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), escitalopram

selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), escitalopram, sertraline and others antidepressants: mirtazapine, venlafaxine,

selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), for at least 1 year

self-management plan including a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control start to deteriorate

self-monitored blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring

sertraline, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration during follow-up

serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

seven different scoring systems

several (16 were found) prognostic indices / scores

several antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, sotalol, beta-blockers) and pacing

several bedsides tools, specially the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)

several clinical features

several clinical prognostic factors

several clinical signs (history of heart failure, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, 3rd heart sound), chest radiography and ECG

several drugs, specially thiazide diuretics

several interventions combining education, reminders, reinforcement

several predictors: pupillary light response, corneal reflexes, motor responses to pain, myoclonus status epilepticus, serum neuron-specific enolase, and somatosensory evoked potential studies

several syntetic disease-modifying drugs (methotrexate, leflunomide, and sulfasalazine) and several anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies/drug (adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab)

short- (≤6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy

short acting insulin analogues

short acting insulin analogues (lispro, aspart or glulisine)

short and long term low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), anticoagulation beyond 12 months for patients without provoking factor, compression stockings

short term course of dual antiplatelet therapy

short-course antibiotic treatment (5 days or less)

short-term (7-10 days) antibiotic prophylaxis

six dedicated programs: Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA), MetAnalysis, MetaWin, MIX (free), RevMan (free), and WEasyMA

size of unruptured aneurysm and previous history of subarachnoid haemorrage


SMAD7 (an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling) antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen

small-diameter covered stent, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

smaller doses of short-acting inhaled beta2 agonists (albuterol, 2.5mg/4h)

social functioning

somatoestatin, octeotride

somatostatin analogues

some clinical characteristics: being young (30% children), rapid evolution (4 days from beguining)

some clinical characteristics: radiated to shoulders or to arms, precipitated by exertion

some clinical findings: weight < 51 Kg, tooth count < 20, self-reported humped back, wall-occiput distance > 0cm, rib-pelvis distance < 2 finger

some clinical signs: POUNDing: Pulsating, duration of 4-72 hOurs, Unilateral, Nausea, Disabling

some drugs: calcium-channel blockers, diuretics, angiotensin II receptor blockers, central sympatholytics, alpha-blockers

some measures (small-gauge, atraumatic needles, reinsertion of the stylet , no need of bed rest) and some test on CSF (leucocyte>500, glucose ratio<0.4, lactates>3.5mmol/L)

some usual diagnostic strategies

sonda vesical con plata

specific combinations of terms, search strategy for randomized controlled trials

spend more than 50% of their time in clinical care

spironolactone, 25-50 mg/d

statin, pravastatin, 40 mg/d


statins, pravastatin

statins, pravastatin 40 mg/d

statins, rosuvastatin

statins, rosuvastatin 10 mg/day for > 5 years

statins, simvastatin 40 mg/d

statins, simvastatin, for 5 years

stepwise sequential screening or fully integrated screening

stimulatory autoantibodies to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor

strategy combining clinical assessment, D dimer, ultrasonography, and lung scan

stratified care: aspirin if mild migraine, triptan (zolmitriptan) if severe

strength training

stress echocardiography

stress test, treadmill exercise testing, in elderly persons

strogen receptor modulators, lasofoxifene 0.5 mg daily

stroke incidence and early case fatality

stroke unit, organised inpatient care for stroke

structured exercise training program, outpatient, non-pharmacological therapy

structured telephone support, or telemonitoring (transfer of physiological data using scpecific devices)

structured therapy targeting predefined hemodynamic end points, quantitative resuscitation

subcutaneous daily teriparatide (biosynthetic human parathyroid hormone 1-34)

subcutaneous rehydration

sublingual immunotherapy

supplemental vitamin D, high dose (700-1000 IU per day)

surgery, decompressive craniectomy

surgery, decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion

surgery, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band

surgery, when done early (first 8 h), in patients not very older (50 to 70 y); not in coma (Glasgow > 9), with superficial hematoma and not intraventricular bleeding

surgical emergency portacaval shunt

suspect Wilson,s disease if obscure hepatic or neurological abnormalities

switch from cyclophosphamide to azathioprine after 3-6 months

switch to oral antibiotic treatment after at least 10 days of IV antibiotics

switch to oral antibiotic treatment after at least 7 days of IV antibiotics

synovial fluid white blood cell count > 50.000/mcl and polymorphonuclear count > 90%

systematic early lumbar disk (microdiskectomy) surgery

systematic early surgery (removal of disc herniation)

systematic prompt revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG)

systematic reviews and other syntheses as the basic unit of knowledge transfer, identifying key messages for different audiences, assessing likely barriers and facilitators

systemic corticosteroids

systemic corticosteroids, administered with antibiotics

systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation

systemic corticosteroids, current dose, even very low doses (5 mg/day prednisolone), total cumulative dose in last 2 years

systemic corticosteroids, dexametasona (10 mg/6h IV x 4 days)

systemic corticosteroids, dexamethasone

systemic corticosteroids, dexamethasone (16 mg twice daily for 4 days)

tai chi

talc administered through an indwelling pleural catheter (4 g of talc slurry)

tap water

testing for DNA of oncogenic human papillomaviruses

testing for helicobacter pylori and eradication when positive

testosterone supplementation

the Beers list: medications that should generally be avoided in persons > 65 years

the PRISMA statement: a checklist plus a flow diagram

the QUOROM statement: a checklist plus a flow diagram

the STOPP/START lists: medications that should be avoided (STOPP) or should be considered (START) in older patients

the time and change test

theophylline, added to inhaled beta2-agonists

theophylline, methylxanthines

these 3 direct oral anticoagulants

these direct oral anticoagulants

Thessaly test ("do the twist") at 20° knee flexion

thrombolysis, alteplase, 3 to 4.5 hours after the onset of symptoms

thrombolysis, alteplase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)

thrombolysis, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)

thrombopoietin mimetics, romiplostim, weekly subcutaneous injection

tight glucose control (target < 6 mmol/L), intensive insulin therapy

tight glucose control, intensive insulin therapy

topical diclofenac, topical NSAIDs

topical ibuprofen, topical NSAIDs

topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

transcatheter aortic-valve replacement

transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVI)

transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS)

transesophageal echocardiography, helical computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (IRM)

travel destination

treatment interruption for 4 months

treatment networks, multiple meta-analyses

TREND statement, a checklist for reporting

tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors - duloxetine, pregabalin, and gabapentin

triple drug regimen with doxycycline, rifampicin and an aminoglycoside (gentamicin or streptomycin)

triple inhaled therapy (glucocorticoid - fluticasone, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) - umeclidinium, and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) - vilanterol)

triple inhaled therapy combining long-acting anticholinergic, long-acting beta-agonist and inhaled corticosteroids


troponin I, troponin T

troponin T

troponin, C reactive protein (CRP)

tto endoscópico, ligadura, esclerosis

two stem questions: low mood and loss of interest

type of alcohol consumed


ultrasonography and computed tomography with rectal contrast if undefined

ultrasonography of leg veins

ultrasound assistance: identifying the location and trajectory for the LP procedure

ultrasound, or MRI to image joints

unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH)

unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), or heparinoids

updated STOPP/START lists: medications that should be avoided (STOPP) or should be considered (START) in older patients

uptitration to maximal doses of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, benazepril ) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB, losartan)

urgent assessment and immediate treatment with antiplatelets (aspirin or clopidogrel or both), statin and antihypertensive drugs

urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)


vancomycin, oral

various antihypertensive treatments

various clinical features, in history and examination

various medical treatments: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers, aldosterone blockers, spironolactone

various medical treatments: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers, others

various pharmacologic treatments, including pirfenidone and nintedanib

vasodilators IV, high-dose nitrates IV + low-dose furosemide

vasopressin IV

vasopressin receptor antagonists, tolvaptan, with or without fluid restriction

vegetarian diet

vegetarian diet, fasting

ventilación mecánica, bajos volúmenes minuto

ventilation/perfusion lung scan

very early mobilization, first 24 hours

very late physiotherapy, more than 6 months after stroke

vigorous exercise, if habitual

vitamin D supplementation, high dose (>800 IU/d), with or without calcium supplementation

vitamin D supplementation, high dose (700-800 IU/d), with or without calcium supplementation

vitamin D, vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol)

vitamin D3 supplementation, high dose (800 IU/d), or calcium supplementation, or both combined

vitamin E, 800 IU daily

vitamin K antagonist (VKA) +aspirin +clopidogrel

vitamin K antagonists, added to aspirin, but not alone

vitamin K antagonists, duration of therapy, 6 months

vitamin K antagonists, duration of therapy, for 1 year

vitamin K antagonists, duration of therapy, indefinite anticoagulation

vitamin K antagonists, duration of therapy, indefinite low-dose anticoagulation (target INR, 1.5 to 2.0)

vitamin K antagonists, warfarin

vitamin K antagonists, warfarin, added to aspirin

vitamin K antagonists, warfarin, added to aspirin or alone

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) haplotipes


warfarin, antivitamin K

watchful waiting

weight management (diet) plus exercise program

whole-blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB), or interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T SPOT.TB)

withdrawal of chronic antipsychotic drugs

women's physical attractiveness, men's overall desirability as a mate